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Here are the grammatically correct definitions of the above terms: This rule applies to any definition where the context of the definitions is important to the meaning of the definition. Examples: “Hitting” means (in baseball) a field in which a hitter swings and misses. “Hitting” means (in bowling) the act of dropping all the pins with the first ball in a frame. “Hitting” means (when fishing) a pull on a line made by a fish when catching the bait. In Lesson 3, we discussed five types of definitions. Of these definitions, the lexical definition is the most important and common type of definition that we often use in our daily lives. In this lesson, we will see the common rules of lexical definitions. Of the following two definitions, the first is affirmative, the second negative: “Concord” means harmony. “Harmony” means the absence of discord. Lexical rules are the inversion of post-lexical rules. However, some words are negative in themselves. For them, a negative definition is quite appropriate. If a lexical definition is to be given in the form of an operational definition or in relation to one of the forms of extension definition, it should normally be supplemented by one of the other forms of intensional definition, preferably by definition by gender and difference.

An operational definition should be completed because, as we noted above, it often conveys only part of the intensional meaning of a word, and this part often misses the essential meaning as a whole. As for extended definitions, at best they can only suggest the essential meaning of a word; they cannot determine it exactly. Therefore, no adequate lexical definition can consist solely of extension definitions. A definition, like any other form of expression, must be grammatically correct. For example, the following definitions are grammatically incorrect: the problem does not lie in technical language as such, but in unnecessarily technical language. Since “rabbit” is a very non-technical term, no technical definition is required. However, some words are technical in themselves, and for them only a technical definition is appropriate. Some operational definitions also include the danger of circularity: “time” refers to everything measured by a clock.

The only types of lexical definitions that tend to be sensitive to any of these gaps are synonymous definitions and definitions by gender and difference. With synonymous definitions, care must be taken to ensure that the definians is really a synonym of the definiendum. With regard to definitions by gender and by difference, it must be ensured that the specific difference restricts gender as it should. A definition is unclear whether its meaning remains hidden due to erroneous or inappropriate language. A source of darkness is language that is too technical. Compare the following two definitions: “Hare” refers to a mammal of the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, whose young are born without fur and blind. Bunny‟ means a rabbit. A definition is pictorial when it contains metaphors or tends to paint an image rather than reveal the essential meaning of a term. For example, “camel” means a desert ship. The lexical rules concern in particular certain classes of words and morphemes.

In addition, they may have exceptions, do not apply beyond word limits, and can only apply to underlying forms. Matthews, P.H. “lexical rule.” The concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. : Oxford University Press, , 2014. Oxford Reference. An example of a lexical rule in spoken English is the deletion of /n/. This rule applies damn well in autumn, but not in the anthem. Since the n-deletion rule apparently needs information about the grammatical status of the word, it can only be lexical. This definition does not identify who has control over how they exercise control and what they control. A definition is ambiguous if it lends itself to more than one different interpretation. A definition cannot be useful if it does not convey the essential meaning of the definition text.

Any definition that defines the word “human” as “featherless biped‖, for example, may not be useful because it does not convey the essential meaning of “human,” as the word is used in ordinary English. It says nothing about the important attributes that distinguish humans from other animals, namely the ability to argue and use language at a demanding level. Therefore, a more appropriate definition would be “human,” that is, the animal that has the ability to argue and speak. A lexical rule is a form of syntactic rule used in many natural language syntax theories. These rules modify the argument structures of lexical elements (such as verbs and declension) to modify their combinatorial properties. Sometimes the problem of circularity arises in the context of pairs of definitions. The following pair is circular: “Science” refers to the activity carried out by scientists. Scientific means all those who deal with science. If a definition is too broad, it includes too much; If it is too narrow, the definition contains too little. For example, if the term “bird” were defined as any warm-blooded animal with wings, the definition would be too broad, as it would include bats and bats are not birds.